Although all penguin species are native
to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such
as Antarctica. Only a few species of penguin actually live so far south.
Three species live in the tropics; one lives as far north as the Galapagos
Islands and will occasionally cross the equator while feeding. The
numbers of penguin species is estimated by experts to vary between 16 and 19
Penguins seem to have no fear of humans, and have approached groups of
explorers without hesitation.
When Penguin mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to steal another
mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other penguin females in the
vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick. Most penguins
feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sea-life caught while
swimming underwater. Penguins spend about half of their life on land and
half in the oceans.